mbbs syllabus : mbbs subjects: mbbs degree

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Curriculum for MBBS as per guideline of Medical Council of india

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The Medical Council of India is the apex regulatory body for regulating the medical education in India. The council has prescribed minimum teaching curricula for getting   MBBS degree in country. All medical colleges of India have to follow these minimum guidelines. The minimum guideline is as follow:
The course of MBBS is five and half years including one year of internship. The first year consists of one year teaching basic science subjects – Anatomy, Physiology and Bio-chemistry with some learning of Community Medicine.
Second year consists of para-clinical subjects – Microbiology, Pathology, Pharmacology and Forensic Medicine with Community Medicine.
Third year is divided in two parts. Part I is of one year with subjects to be appear for exam are ophthalmology, ENT and Community Medicine. Part II is again of one year with subjects to be appear in exam are Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pediatrics.
Thus once student clear all four years with all subjects named, he/she is eligible for internship. Subject wise and yearwise details are as follow:
First year – It starts with admission around July – August of give year. The first two semesters or term consist of first year. The first two semesters (approximately 240 teaching days) will be occupied in the phase I (pre-clinical) subjects and introduction to a broader understanding of the perspectives of medical education leading to delivery of health care.

1. Anatomy
Goal: The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Anatomy aims at providing comprehensive knowledge of the gross and microscopic structure and development of human body to provide a basis for understanding the clinical correlation of organs or structures involved and the anatomical basis for the disease presentations.
The subject deals with the structure of human body. The curriculum for subject is as follow:
1. General Anatomy
2. Regional Anatomy
a.   -  Upper limb
b. - Lower limb
c. - Abdomen
d. - Thorax
e. - Head Face Neck
f. - Spinal Cord & Brain
3. Micro-Anatomy   I - General Histology
II - Systemic Histology
4. Developmental Anatomy I - General Embryology
II - Systemic Embryology
5. Genetics
6. Radiological Anatomy, USG, CT, MRI
7. Surface Anatomy, Living & Marking

Anatomy books recommended
1) Gray's Anatomy
2) Sahana's Human Anatomy
3) Chouraia's Human Anatomy 3 volumes
4) Cunningham's manual of Practical Anatomy
5) Regional Anatomy by R. J. Last
6) Human Histology by Inderbir Singh
7) Atlas of Human Histology- DIFORE
8) Surgical Anatomy- McGregor
9) Histolgoy- by ham,
10) Human Embryology – Inderbir Singh,
11) Medical Embryology – Langman,
12) Surface Anatomy & Radiology – Halim Das,
13) General Anatomy by – Chowrisia
14) Text book of Neuroanatomy – Inderbir Singh
15) Central Nervous System – Podar Bhagat
16) Clinical anatomy for medical students – Richard Snell
17) Sociology and Health – Niraj Pandit, B. I Publication, NewDelhi

2.PHYSIOLOGY
Goal: The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in physiology aims at providing the student comprehensive knowledge of the normal functions of the organ systems of the body to facilitate an understanding of the physiological basis of health and diseases.
Curriculum
A) GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY.
B) HEMATOLOGY
C) NERVE
D) MUSCLE
E) RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY
F) CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
G) RENAL PHYSIOLOGY
H) BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION
I) ALIMENTARY SYSTEM
J) NUTRITION
K) ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
L) REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY
M) SPECIAL SENSES : Eye, Ear, Taste, Smell,
N) CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

Physiology books recommended
1) Textbooks of Physiology :
Guyton - Textbook of Physiology
Ganong - Review of Medical Physiology
S. Wright - Applied Physiology
2) Reference Books :
Best and Taylor - Physiological basis of medical practice
Berne & levy. - Principles of Physiology

3.  Biochemistry

Goal :-
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in biochemistry is to make them understand the scientific basis of the life processes at the molecular level and to orient them towards the application of the knowledge acquired in solving clinical problems.
Curriculum
1    Molecular and functional  organization of a cell  and its sub-cellular components.
2. Chemistry of enzymes and their clinical applications.
3. Chemistry  and metabolism of proteins and  related  disorders.
4. Chemistry and  metabolism of  purines and pyrimidines   and related disorders.
5. Chemistry and functions of DNA and  RNA , Genetic code ; Protein  biosynthesis &.regulation ( Lac-operon )
6. The principles of genetic engineering and their applications in medicine.
7. Chemistry  and Metabolism  of haemoglobin.
8. Biological  oxidation.
9. Molecular concept of body defence and their applications in medicine.
10. Vitamins and Nutrition.
11. Chemistry and metabolism of carbohydrates and related disorders.
12. Chemistry and metabolism of lipids and related disorders.
13. Mineral  metabolism:  Water and electrolyte balance & imbalance.
14. Acid base balance and imbalance.
15. Integration of various aspects  of metabolism and their regulatory pathways. Starvation metabolism.
16. Mechanism of hormone action.
17. Environmental biochemistry.
18. Liver function tests, Kidney function tests, Thyroid function tests
19. Detoxification mechanisms.
20. Biochemical   basis of cancer and carcinogenesis.
21. Radioisotopes.
22. Investigation techniques :  (LCD-Topics ) Colorimeter, Electrophoresis, Chromatography & Flame photometer.





Biochemistry books recommended
1. Medical Biochemistry    - U.Satyanarayan.
2. Biochemistry for Medical students by D.M.Vasudevan & Shree Kumari.
3. Medical Biochemistry by M.N. Chatterjea and Rana Shinde.
4. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry by Ramakrishnan, Prasannan & Rajan.
5. Medical Biochemistry by Debajyoti Das.
6. Biochemistry by A.C.Deb.

        REFERENCE BOOKS:

1.    Harper's Biochemistry.
2.    Medical Biochemistry by N.V.Bhagwan.
3.    Biochemistry by L.Stryer.
4.    Biochemistry by Orten & Neuhans.

In the first year, students learn small portion of subject community Medicine. The topics are covered like Concept of health, Nutrition and Sociology and Health. These are the basic concept of community medicine.







Second Year consist of one and half year (three semester)

4. Pathology
1. Goal
The goal of teaching pathology is to provide undergraduate students comprehensive knowledge of the causes and mechanisms of disease, in order to enable them to achieve complete understanding of the natural history and clinical manifestations of the disease.
Syllabus
1. General Pathology
2. Haematology
3. Systemic Pathology
4. Clinical Pathology
5. Autopsy

The Broad area of study shall be:-
A) GENERAL PATHOLOGY
1.  Microscopy and tissue processing
2. Identify the common types of cells by light microscopy
3.  Intracellular accumulation
4. Acute inflammation
5.  Chronic inflammation and Repair
6. Thrombosis, embolism, infarction and gangrene
7. Oedema and congestion
8.  Disturbances of pigment metabolism
9. Tuberculosis
10. Leprosy
11. Amyloidosis
12. Disturbances of growth (Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia,
            Dysplasia, hypoplasia)

B) HAEMATOLOGY:
1. Collection of specimen, anticoagulants and common haematological tests (Hb)
2. Common Haematological Counts (TLC, DLC) & Interpretation of ESR
3. Haemopoiesis
4. Investigations in Anaemia
5. Investigations in Leukaemia
6. Investigations in haemorrhagic disorders
7. Blood Banking

C) SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY:
1. Diseases of blood vessels (Atherosclerosis, syphilitic aortitis)
2. Diseases of Heart (IHD & RHD)
3. Pneumonias
4. Tumours of lung
5. Diseases of kidney
6. Gross and Microscopic features of peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer
7. Gross and Microscopic features of other intestinal ulcers
8. Tumours of GIT
9. Diseases of Liver
10. Lymphomas
11. Diseases of male and female genital system
12 &13.  Tumours of breast
14. Tumours of skin (Pigmented)
15.  Tumours of skin (non-pigmented)
16. Soft tissue tumours
17. Tumours of bone
18. Diseases of thyroid

D) CLINICAL PATHOLOGY:
1.  Urine RE - Carryout a bedside routine urine examination and interpret the results.
2.  Pregnancy test and Semen Analysis - (Practical demonstration).
3.  Common cytological preparations (lecture demonstration).
4.  CSF examination.
5.  Serous effusion examination.

E) AUTOPSY:

Pathology books recommended

a) Text book of Pathology by Robbins
b) Text book of General Pathology Part I & II by Bhende and Deodhare
c) Clinical Pathology by Talib
d) Text book of Pathology by Harsh Mohan
e) Text book of Pathology by Muir
f) Haematology De Gruchi
g) IAPM text book of Pathology

Reference books:
a) Anderson's text book of Pathology Vol I & II
b) Oxford text book of Pathology Vol. I, II & III
c) Pathology by Rubin and Farber
d) Pathologic basis of Disease Robbins




5. Microbiology 
1. Goal
The goal of teaching Microbiology is to provide understanding of the natural history of infectious diseases in order to deal with the etiology, pathogenesis, pathogenicity, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of these infections and infectious diseases.
Curriculum
A) GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY:
1. Introduction and Historical background
2. Morphology of bacteria and Classification
3. Physiology of bacteria including growth requirements & metabolism
4. Sterilization
5. Disinfectants
6. Waste disposal
7. Bacterial genetics and drug resistance to antimicrobial agents.
8. Host parasite relationship and bacterial infections
9. Normal flora
10. Methods of identification of bacteria. Diagnosis of infectious diseases (direct and indirect)

B) IMMUNOLOGY:
1. Introduction
2. Antigens, HLA
3. Antibodies
4. Serological reactions
5. Immune response
6. Complement
7. Hypersensitivity
8. Autoimmunity
9. Transplantation & tumour immunology
10. Immuno-Deficiency


C) SYSTEMIC BACTERIOLOGY:
Pathogenesis includes:
Infectious agent    
Habitat    
Source / reservoir                    
Mode                                        
Infective dose                          
Multiplication, spread              
Clinical features, pathology      
Complications                          
Virulence factors                      
Immunological response          

Laboratory diagnosis:                      
? Specimen selection
? Collection
? Transport
? Primary smear, hanging drop
? Selection of media
? Pathogenicity testing
? Anti microbial drug susceptibility testing
? Serological interpretation
D) MYCOLOGY:
1. Introduction to Mycology
2. Agents of Superficial mycosis
3. Subcutaneous mycosis
4. Systemic mycosis & Opportunistic fungal infections

E) VIROLOGY:
Morphology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, prevention and control for all viruses.
General Virology
Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections
Viral immunity
Pox viruses
DNA viruses
Respiratory viruses
Picornaviruses
Hepatitis viruses
Arboviruses
Rhabdoviruses
Slow and Oncogenic viruses
Retroviruses

F) PARASITOLOGY:

Geographical distribution
Habitat
Morphology ( different stages ) found in human beings
Life cycle
Pathogenesis
Laboratory diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Immunoprophylaxis
Of E. histolytica, Free living amoebae and flagellates, Hemoflagellates, Malaria, Toxoplasma, Taenia saginata & solium,  Echinococcus granulosus, Schistosomiasis, A.duodenale, A. lumbricoides, E. vermicularis, T. tritura, W. bancrofti, D. medinensis, T. spiralis

Microbiology books recommended
1.  Textbook of Microbiology     - R. Ananthanarayan
C. K. Jayaram Panikar
2.  A Textbook of Microbiology     - P. Chakraborty
3.  Textbook of Medical Microbiology   - Rajesh Bhatia & Itchpujani
4.  Textbook of Medical Microbiology   - Arora and Arora
5.  Textbook of Medical Parasitology     - C. K. Jayaram Panikar
6.  Textbook of Medical Parasitology     - Arora and Arora
7.  Textbook of Medical Parasitology     - S.C.Parija
4.  Microbiology in clinical practice     - D. C. Shanson

Reference books:

1.  Mackie McCartney practical Medical Microbiology-   Colle JG , Fraser AG
2. Principles of Bacteriology, Virology &
Immunology vol. 1,2,3,4,5-                                      Topley Wilsons
3.  Medical Mycology (Emmons)-                            Kwon – Chung
4.  Review of Medical Microbiology (Lange)-               Jawetz
5.  Immunology-                 Weir DM
6.  Medical Microbiology-             David Greenwood, Richard Stack, John Pentherer
7.  Parasitology-      KD Chatterjee
8.  Medical virology-      Timbury MC
9.  Mackie McCartney Medical, Microbiology vol.1-      Duguid JP
10.Microbial infections-         Marmion BP, Swain RHA




6.  Pharmacology

1. Goal
The broad goal of teaching pharmacology to undergraduate students is to inculcate in them a rational and scientific basis of therapeutics.
A) INTRODUCTION: Pharmacology - a foundation to clinical practice
Development of the branch of pharmacology; Scope of the subject; role of drugs as one of the modalities to treat diseases,  definition of drug; nature and sources of drugs; subdivisions of pharmacology rational pharmacotherapy
 B) GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY:
Pharmacokinetics
Application to pharmacotherapeutics
Adverse Drug Reactions
C) AUTONOMIC PHARMACOLOGY:
A) CARDIOVASCULAR SYSEM INCLUDING DRUGS AFFECTING
COAGULATION AND THOSE ACTING ON KIDNEYS:
General Considerations and Overview of antihypertensive therapy;
Diuretics
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
Sympatholytics & vasodilators
Management of hypertension
Antianginal: Nitrates & others
Calcium channel blockers
Pharmacotherapy of chest pain
Anticoagulants & Coagulants
Thrombolytics & Antiplatelet Agents
Drugs for CCF: Digitalis glycosides, Others agents
Management of CCF
Antiarrhythmic Agents
Agents used for the management of shock
Hypolipidaemic drugs
Role of Nitric oxide and endothelin to be covered in CVS

E) HAEMATINICS AND HAEMATOPOIETIC FACTORS:
Agents used in therapy of iron deficiency anaemia and megaloblastic anaemia; Erythropoietin,
  Management of anaemia
F) NEUROPSYCHIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY INCLUDING INFLAMMATON, PAIN & SUBSTANCE ABUSE
General Considerations
Sedative-Hypnotics
Psychopharmacology: Antianxiety; Antipsychotics; Antidepressants
Antiepileptics
Therapy of neurodegenerative disorders:
Anti-Parkinsonian agents; cerebral vasodilators/nootropics
Local anaesthetics
Analgesics: Opioids; NSAIDs
Pharmacotherapy of pain including migraine                                                          
Pharmacotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis and gout
Substance abuse: Management of opioid, alcohol and tobacco addictions
G) MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS - I:
Autocoids (to be covered before pain lectures)
Antiallergics: Antihistaminics
Drugs used for bronchial asthma
Pharmacotherapy of cough
Drugs acting on immune system:
Immunostimulants, immunosuppressants; pharmacology of vaccines & sera
Drugs acting on the uterus
H) CHEMOTHERAPY INCLUDING CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY:
General considerations
Antimicrobial agents:
Sulphonamides & Cotrimoxazole
Quinoline derivatives
Penicillins, Cephalosporins & Other ? Lactams
Aminoglycosides
Macrolides
Tetracyclines & Chloramphenicol
Pharmacotherapy of UTI
General principles of Antimicrobial use
Antimycobacterial therapy: Anti-Kochs agents; Anti-leprotic agents
Pharmacotherapy of tuberculosis
Antiprotozoal agents:
Antiamoebic, Antimalarials and Anti Kala azar
Pharmacotherapy of malaria
Antihelminthics
(against intestinal Nematodes and Cestodes; extra intestinal Nematodes and Trematodes)
Antifungal agents
Antiviral agents including antiretroviral agents
Pharmacotherapy of STDs
Principles of cancer chemotherapy and their adverse drug reactions
(individual agents and regimes need not be taught)
I) ENDOCRINOLOGY:
Introduction to endocrinology
(including Hypothalamic and Anterior Pituitary hormones)
Steroids
Glucocorticoids: Use and Misuse
Oestrogens & antagonists
Progestins & antagonists
Oral contraceptives & profertility agents
Testosterone & anabolic steroids
Fertility control
Thyroxine and antithyroid agents
Agents affecting calcification
Antidiabetic agents: Insulin; Oral antidiabetic drugs
Pharmacotherapy of Diabetes Mellitus
J) AGENTS USED IN GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS:
Pharmacotherapy of nausea & vomiting
Pharmacotherapy of peptic ulcer
Management of dyspepsia
Management of diarrhoea and constipation
K) PERIOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT: to be covered as a case study
Preanaesthetic medication
Preparation of surgical site: antiseptics etc.
Local Anaesthetics
Skeletal muscle relaxants
Drugs used in post-operative period: analgesics, antiemetics etc.
L) MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS – II
Drug-Drug Interactions
Drug use at extremes of age, in pregnancy & in organ dysfunction
Use of chelating agents in heavy metal poisonings; Environmental & occupational
toxicants and principles of management (particularly cyanide and CO)
Ocular pharmacology
Dermatopharmacology
General Anaesthetics
Pharmacotherapy of glaucoma and conjunctivitis
M) RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY:
Prescription writing and P-drug concept
Rational Drug Use; Essential Drug List (EDL)
Criticism with reference to Fixed Drug Combinations (FDCs)
Use and misuse of commonly used preparations: vitamins, antioxidants, enzymes etc.


Pharmacology books recommended
1. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. Katzung BG (Ed), Publisher: Prentice Hall International Ltd., London.
2. Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics. Satoskar RS, Bhandarkar SD (Ed), Publisher: Popular Prakashan, Bombay.
3. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology. Tripathi KD (Ed), Jaypee Brothers, publisher:Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
4. Clinical Pharmacology. Laurence DR, Bennet PN, Brown MJ (Ed). Publisher: Churchill Livingstone

Reference books  :
1. Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Hardman JG & Limbird LE (Ed), Publisher: McGraw-Hill, New York.
2. A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology. Roger HJ, Spector RG, Trounce JR (Ed), Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton Publishers.







7. Forensic Medicine and Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology
1. Goal
The broad goal of teaching undergraduate students Forensic Medicine is to produce a physician who is well informed about Medico-legal responsibility during his/her practice of Medicine. He/She will also be capable of making observations and inferring conclusions by logical deductions to set enquiries on the right track in criminal matters and associated medico-legal problems. He/She acquires knowledge of law in relation to Medical practice, Medical negligence and respect for codes of Medical ethics.

A) DEFINITION, SCOPE RELEVANT TO SUBJECT

1. History of Forensic Medicine
2. Need, Scope, Importance and probative value of Medical evidence in Crime Investigation

B) PERSONAL IDENTITY NEED AND ITS IMPORTANCE.

1. Data useful for Identification of Living and Dead
2. Age estimation and its medico-legal Importance
3. Sex determination and it’s medico-legal importance
4. Other methods of establishing identity: Corpus Delicti, Dactylography, Tattoo marks, Deformities, Scars and other relevant factors
5. Identification of decomposed, Mutilated bodies and skeletal remains
6. Medico legal aspect of *DNA fingerprinting - a brief introduction
7. Medico - legal aspect of blood and blood stains

Collection, Preservation and Dispatch of Specimen for Blood and other ancillary material for identification and Medico-legal examination
C) MECHANICAL INJURIES AND BURNS

1. Definition and classification of injuries: Abrasions, Contusions, Lacerations, Incised and Stab injury, Firearm and Explosion injury, Fabricated and Defence injury
2. Medico-legal aspect of injury/hurt, simple and grievous hurts, murder, Ante -mortem, Postmortem Wounds, Age of the injury, cause of death and relevant sections of I.P.C., Cr.P.C.
3. Causative Weapon and appearance of Suicidal, Accidental and Homicidal injuries
4. Physical methods of Torture and their identification
5. Reporting on Medico-legal cases of Hurts
6. Regional injuries: Head injury, cut throat injuries and Road traffic accident injuries
7. Thermal injuries: Injuries due to heat and cold, Frostbite, Burns, Scalds and Bride burning
8. Injuries due to Electricity, Lightening

Collection, Preservation and Dispatch of Specimen for Blood and other ancillary material for Medico-legal examination
D) MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS OF SEX, MARRIAGE AND INFANT DEATH

1. Sexual Offences and perversions: Natural (Rape, Adultery, and Incest), Unnatural (Sodomy, Bestiality and Buccal coitus) Lesbianism, perversions and relevant sections of I.P.C. and Cr.P.C.
2. Fertility, Impotence, Sterility, Virginity, and Nullity of marriage and divorce on Medical ground
3. Pregnancy, Delivery, Paternity, Legitimacy, Artificial Insemination, *Fertilisation in Vitro, *Sterilization (Family Planning Measures)
4.  Abortions, Medical Termination of pregnancy, criminal abortions, Battered Baby Syndrome, Cot deaths and relevant sections of I.P.C. and Cr.P.C., M.T.P. Act of 1971 and foetal sex determination Act
5.   Infant death (Infanticide)
i. Definition Causes, Manners and Autopsy features
ii. Determination of age of Foetus and Infant
iii. Signs of live-born, stillborn and dead born child

Collection, Preservation and Dispatch of Specimen: Hair, seminal fluid/ stains and other ancillary material for medico-legal examination, examination of seminal stains and vaginal swabs

E) MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS OF DEATH

1. Definition and concept of death, stages, modes, Signs of death and its importance
2. Changes after death, Cooling, Hypostasis, Changes in eye, Muscle changes, Putrefaction, Saponification, Mummification, Estimation of time since death
3. Death Certification, Proximate causes of death, causes of sudden deaths, Natural deaths. Presumption of death and survivorship, disposal and preservation of dead
4. Introduction to *The Anatomy Act, *The Human organ transplantation Act. 1994
5. Medico-legal aspects and findings of post-mortem examination in cases of death due to common unnatural conditions
6. Sudden unexpected death, deaths from starvation, cold and heat and their medico-legal importance
7. Medico-legal aspects of death from Asphyxia, Hanging, Strangulation, Suffocation and Drowning

F) MEDICO-LEGAL AUTOPSY

1. Autopsy: Objectives, Facilities, Rules and Basic techniques, Proforma for reporting medico-legal autopsy
2. Exhumation, examination of mutilated remains, Obscure autopsy and post-mortem artifacts

Collection, preservation and despatch of material for various investigations to Forensic Science Laboratory

G) *FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

1. Definition, General terminology and * Basic concept of normality and abnormality of human behaviour, Civil and Criminal responsibility
2. Examination, Certification, restraint and admission to Mental Hospital
3. Mental Health Act – Principles and Objectives


Part – 2 Toxicology:
A) POISONS AND THEIR MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS

1. Definition of poison, General consideration and Laws in relation to poisons\Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances Act, *Schedules H and L drugs, *Pharmacy Act, Duties and responsibilities of attending physician
2. Common poisons and their classification, Identification of common poisons, Routes of administration, Actions of poisons and factors modifying them, Diagnosis of poisoning (Clinical and Confirmatory) , Treatment/ Management of cases of acute and chronic poisonings
3. Addiction and Habit forming drugs, drug dependence
4. Occupational and environmental poisoning, prevention and Epidemiology of common poisoning and their legal aspects particularly pertaining to Workmen’s Compensation Act
5. Medico-Legal aspects and findings of postmortem examination in cases of death due to poisonings

B) POISONS TO BE STUDIED
1. Corrosive: Euphoric Acid, Nitric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid, Carbolic Acid and Oxalic Acid, Sodium and Potassium and Ammonium Hydro-Oxide
2. Non-metallic, Metallic Poisons and Industrial hazards: Phosphorus and compounds of Lead, Arsenic, Mercury, Copper, and Glass powder
3. Plant Poisons: Castor, Croton, Capsicum, Semicarpus Anacardium (Bhilawa), Calatropis Gigantea, Abrus Precatorius (Ratti), Dhatura, Cannabis Indica, Cocaine, Opium, Aconite, Yellow Oleander, Strychnine
4. Animal and Bacterial Poisons: Snakes, Scorpion and Food poisoning
5. Alcohol (Drunkenness) Ethyl Alcohol, Methyl Alcohol, Kerosene, Barbiturates
6. Asphyxiant & Gaseous Poisons: Carbon Monoxide, War gases, Hydrocyanic acid, and Cyanides
7. Insecticides, pesticides and Miscellaneous poisons: Organo-Phosphorus Compounds, Organo-Chloro Compounds, Carbamates (Carbaryl) and Rodenticides (Phosphides)
Collection, Preservation and forwarding of evidence, remains of poison, body discharges and viscera etc. to Forensic Science Laboratory in cases of poisoning

C) FORENSIC SCIENCE LABORATORY: (BRIEF)

1. Aims, objects, general knowledge about Forensic Science Laboratory
2. General principles of analytical toxicology

Part – 3 Medical Jurisprudence:
A) LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF PRACTICE OF MEDICINE

1. The Indian Medical Council, the Act, Formation and Functions; State Medical Council: Formation, Functions, and Registration
2. Rights and obligations of Registered Medical Practitioners and patient, Duties of physicians and patients, Euthanasia
3. Infamous conduct, Professional secrecy and privileged communications
4. Codes of Medical Ethics, medical etiquette, Medical Negligence and contributory negligence, Precautionary measures and defences for Medical Practitioners against legal actions, Medical/Doctors indemnity insurance, Consumer Protection Act relevant to medical practice
5. Medical Ethics and prohibition of Torture & care of Torture Victims

B) DEFINITION OF HEALTH AND ITEMS TO CERTIFY ABOUT HEALTH

1. Common medico-legal problems in Hospital practice, Consent in Medical Examination and treatment, under treatment/ Sickness and Fitness certificate, maintenance of medical records
2. Social, Medical, Legal and Ethical problems in relation to AIDS

C) ACTS AND SCHEMES RELATED TO MEDICAL PROFESSION IN BRIEF:

Workmen’s compensation Act, * Mental Health Act, Medical Practitioner Act, Protection of human rights Act, 1993, * National Human Rights Commission, * Human Organ Transplantation Act and other relevant sections of I.P.C., Cr.P.C. and I.E. Act. Maharashtra civil medical code, Hospital administration manual
Part – 4 Legal procedures in medico-legal cases: (N=8)

A. Medico-Legal Investigations of death in suspicious circumstances, different Inquest, type of offences
B. Types of Criminal courts and their powers, punishments prescribed by law, kinds of witnesses, Evidence, Documentary Medical evidence, Dying declaration and Dying deposition
C. The Trial of criminal cases, Rules and Conventions to be followed by Medical Witness at Medical evidence, subpoena, conduct money
D. Relevant Sections from the Indian Evidence Act, Indian Penal code and Criminal Procedure code



Forensic medicine books recommended

1. Modi’s Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology
Ed. 22, 1999, by B.V. Subramanyam, Butterworth
2. The Essentials of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology by K.S. Narayan Reddy
3. Parikh’s Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology.
4. Text Book of Forensic Medicine – J.B. Mukherjii  VOL 1 & 2
5. Principles of Forensic Medicine -  A. Nandy
6. Toxicology at a Glance by Dr S.K. Singhal
7. Bernard Knight et. All: Cox’s Medical Jurisprudence & Toxicology

Reference books

1. Russell S. Fisher & Charles S.Petty: Forensic Pathology
2. Keith Simpson: Forensic Medicine
3. Jurgen Ludwig: Current Methods of autopsy practice.
4. Gradwohl – Legal Medicine
5. A Doctors Guide to Court – Simpson
6. Polson C.J. : The essentials of Forensic Medicine
7. Adelson, L.: The Pathology of Homicide.
8. Atlas of Legal Medicine (Tomro Watonbe)
9. Sptiz, W.U. & Fisher, R.S.: Medico-legal Investigation of Death.
10. A Hand Book of Legal Pathology (Director of Publicity)
11. Taylor’s Principles & Practice of Medical Jurisprudence.
Edited by A.Keith Mant, Churchill Livingstone.
12. Ratanlal & Dhirajlal, The Indian Penal Code; Justice Hidayatullah & V.R. Manohar
13. Ratanlal & Dhirajlal, The Code of Criminal procedure; Justice Hidayatullah
& S.P. Sathe
14. Ratanlal & Dhirajlal, The Law of Evidence; Justice Hidayatullah & V.R. Manohar
15. Medical Law & Ethic in India – H.S. Mehta
16. Bernard Knight : Forensic Pathology
17. Code of medical ethics : Medical Council of India, approved by Central Government, U/S 33 (m) of IMC Act, 1956 (Oct 1970)
18. Krogman, W.M.: The human skeleton in legal medicine.
19. FE Camps, JM Cameren, David Lanham : Practical Forensic Medicine
20. V.V. Pillay : Modern Medical Toxicology.

In second year, students are also learning some part of Community Medicine. But they will appear for exam on above subject only.

The third year is consist of Part – I and Part-II
Part –I is of one year and having exam of three subjects – community Medicine, Ophthalmology and ENT.




Community Medicine
Goal:
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in community medicine is to prepare them to function as community and first level physicians in accordance with the institutional goals.
Curriculum
- Basic concept of Health and disease
- Sociology and health
- Epidemiology
- Communicable disease epidemiology
- Non-communicable disease epidemiology
- National Health Programmes of India
- Environment and impact on health
- Entomology
- Occupational Medicine / occupational health
- Genetics and health
- Nutrition and health
- Health care management India and International
- Primary Health care
- International Health and travelers health

BOOKS RECMMENDED.
1.     Text book of Community Medicine, Kulkarni A.P. and Baride J.P.
2.     Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park
3.     Principles of Preventive  and Social Medicine, K. Mahajan
4.     Textbook of Community Medicine, B. Shridhar Rao.
5.     Essentials of Community Medicine, Suresh Chandra.
6.     Textbook of  Biostatistics, B. K. Mahajan
7.     Review in Community Medicine, V.R. Sheshu Babu.
8. Sociology and Health Niraj Pandit
9. National Health Programme, J Kishor
FURTHER READINGS
 Epidemiology and Management for health care for all   P.V. Sathe and A.P. Sathe.
 Essentials of Preventive Medicine   O.P. Ghai and Piyush Gupta.







Ophthalmology

Goal:
The broad goal of the teaching of students in  ophthalmology is  to  provide such knowledge and skills to  the  students  that shall  enable him to practice as a clinical and as a primary  eye care  physician and also to function effectively as a  community health  leader  to  assist  in  the  implementation  of  National Programme  for the prevention of blindness and rehabilitation  of the visually
INTRODUCTION ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF THE EYE
COMMON DISEASE OF EYE.
 A) Conjunctiva.
 Symptomatic conditions: - Hyperemia, Sub conjunctival Haemorrhage.
Diseases: - Classification of Conjunctivitis
:- Mucopurulant Conjunctivitis
:- Membranous Conjunctivitis Spring Catarrh.
:-  Degenerations  :-  Pinguecula and Pterigium
B) Cornea: - Corneal Ulcers:  Bacterial, Fungal, Viral, Hypopyon.
:-  Interstitial Keratitis.
:-  Keratoconus.
:-  Pannus
:-  Corneal Opacities.
:-  Keratoplasty.
C) Sclera  : :-  Episcleritis.
:-  Scleritis.
:- Staphyloma.
D)  Uvea :-  Classification of Uveitis
:-  Gen. Etiology, Investigation and Principles Management of Uveitis.
:-  Acute & Chronic Iridocyclitis.
:-  Panophthalmitis.
:-  End Ophthalmitis.
:-  Choriditis.
E) Lens :
I)  Cataract – Classification & surgical management of cataract.
:-   Including Preoperative  Investigation.
:-  Anaesthesia.
:-  Aphakia.
:-  IOL Implant
F)  Glaucoma :
:-  Aqueous Humor Dynamics.
:-  Tonometry.
:-  Factors controlling Normal I.O.P.
:-  Provocative Tests.
:-  Classifications of Glaucoma.
:-  Congenital Glaucoma.
:-  Angle closure Glaucoma.
:-  Open Angle Glaucoma.
:-  Secondary Glaucoma
G)  Vitreous :
:-  Vitreous. Opacities.
:-  Vitreous. Haemorrhage.
H)  Intraocular Tumours :
:-  Retinoblastoma.
:-  Malignant Melanoma
I)  Retina :
:-  Retinopathies : Diabetic, Hypertensive Toxaemia of Pregnancy.
:-  Retinal  Detachment.
:-  Retinitis Pigmentosa,  Retinoblastoma

J)  Optic nerve :
:-  Optic Neuritis.
:-  Papilloedema.
:-  Optic Atrophy.
K) Optics  :
:-  Principles : V.A. testing Retinoscopy, Ophthalmoscopy.
:-  Ref. Errors.
:-  Refractive Keratoplasty.
:-  Contact lens, Spectacles
L)  Orbit :
:-  Proptosis – Aetiology, Clinical Evaluation, Investigations &
     Principles of Management
:-  Endocrinal Exophthalmos.
:-  Orbital Haemorrhage.
M) Lids :
:-  Inflammations of Glands.
:-  Blepharitis.
:-  Trichiasis, Entropion.
:-  Ectropion.
:-  Symblepharon.
:-  Ptosis.
N)  Lacrimal System :
:-  Wet Eye.
:-  Dry Eye
:-  Naso Lacrimal Duct Obstruction
:-  Dacryocystitis



O)  Ocular Mobility :
:-  Extrinsic Muscles.
:-  Movements of Eye Ball.
:-  Squint : Gen. Aetiology, Diagnosis and principles of Management.
:-  Paralytic and Non Paralytic Squint.
:-  Heterophoria.
:-  Diplopia.
P)  Miscellaneous  :
:-  Colour Blindness.
:-  Lasers in Ophthalmology – Principles.
Q)  Ocular Trauma : -  Blunt Trauma.
:-  Perforating Trauma
:-  Chemical Burns
:-  Sympathetic Ophthalmitis
2)  Principles of Management of Major Opthalmic Emergencies :
:-  Acute Congestive Glaucoma.
:-  C. Ulcer.
:-  Intraocular Trauma.
:-  Chemical Burns.
:-  Sudden Loss of vision
:-  Acute Iridocyclitis.
:-  Secondary Glaucomas
3)  Main Systemic Diseases Affecting the Eye :
:-  Tuberculosis.
:-  Syphilis.
:-  Leprosy.
:-  Aids.
:-  Diabetes.
:-  Hypertension
4)  Drugs :
:-  Antibiotics
:-  Steroids.
:-  Glaucoma Drugs.
:-  Mydriatics.
:-  Visco elastics.
:-  Fluoresceue.
5)  Community Ophthalmology :
:-  Blindness : Definition Causes & Magnitude
N.P.C.B. – Integration of N.P.C.B. with other health
:-  Preventable Blindness.
:-  Eye care.
:-  Role of PHC’s in Eye Camps.
:-  Eye Banking.
6)  Nutritional :-  Vit. A. Deficiency.

Books for Ophthalmology
BASAK - OPHTHALMOLOGY ORAL & PRACTICAL
BASAK - ESSENTIALS OF OPHTHALMOLOGY
CHATTERJEE -HANDBOOK OF OPHTHALMOLOGY
D.K. (SAMANT) - OPHTHALMOLOGY: THEORY PRECTICAL WITH MCQ'S
KHURANA - OPHTHALMOLOGY
NEMA - TEXTBOOK OF OPHTHALMOLOGY
PARSON'S - DISEASES OF THE EYE
SEETHARAMAN - PRACTICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY
SHEKHAR - MCQ'S IN OPHTHALMOLOGY


ENT
Goal –
The basic idea of undergraduate  students teaching and training in otolaryngology is that he /she should have acquired adequate knowledge and skills for optimally Dealing with common disorders, emergencies in E.N.T .and basic principles of impaired hearing rehabilitation.
Course
Throat
Anatomy/physiology                            
Diseases of buccal cavity                    
Diseases of  pharynx                            
Tonsils and adenoids                          
Pharyngeal tumours and related
             Topics (trismus, Plummer .Vinson Syndrome etc.)      
Anatomy /physiology/examination
           Methods/symptomatology of larynx      
Stridor /tracheostomy                        
Laryngitis /laryngeal trauma/ Laryngeal paralysis/ foreign body larynx/Bronchus, etc.                                      
Laryngeal tumours                              


Nose and paranasal sinuses
Anatomy /physiology/ exam.
Methods /symptomatology                    
Diseases of ext.  nose/cong.
                Conditions                                            
Trauma to nose/p.n.s/Foreign Body. /  Rhinolith    
Epistaxis                                              
Diseases of nasal septum                
Rhinitis                                                
Nasal polyps/nasal allergy              
Sinusitis and its complications        
Tumours of nose and Para nasal sinuses                
EAR
Anatomy /physiology                        
Methods/methods of examination                  
Cong.diseases/ ext.ear /middle ear      
Acute/chronic supp. otitis media
Aetiology, clinical features and its
Management/complications              
Serous/adhesive otitis media            
Mastoid/middle ear surgery              
Otosclerosis/tumours of ear            
Facial paralysis/Meniere’s disease    
Tinnitus /ototoxicity                            
Deafness/hearing aids/rehabilitation
            Audiometry            
Books for ENT
BHARGAVA - A SHORT TEXTBOOK OF E.N.T. DISEASE
DHINGRA- DISEASE OF EAR, NOSE AND THROAT
HATHIRAM- E.N.T. SIMPLIFIED
LOGAN TURNER'S - DISEASE OF THROAT, NOSE AND EAR
PRABHAT- PRACTICAL ENT
                             

Third Year part – II consist of four subjects – medicine, surgery, obstratics and gynecology and pediatrics

Medicine 
 GOAL :
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Medicine is to have the knowledge, skills and behavioral attributes to function effectively as the first contact physician.
Medicine includes the assessor branches like skin, psychiatry and pulmonology (TB and chest). Thus curricula includes
- Introduction to Medicine
- Infectious Diseases/Tropical diseases Cardiovascular System
- GIT, Liver, Pan. Chest + Miscellaneous
TB
Psychiatry
Skin
- Neurology
Haematology/Haemato-oncology
Tutorials
Skin / STD
- Endo + Misc + Genetics ( 3 Lectures.)
Nephro. +Clinical Nutrition
Tutorial Medicine, Skin, Tb, Psychiatry,



Medicine books recommended
ALAGAPPAN -MANUAL OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE
API - TEXTBOOK OF MEDICINE
CHAMBERLAIN'S- SYMPTOMS & SIGNS IN CLINICAL MEDICINE
CORKE - PRACTICAL INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE - PROBLEM SOLVING I THE ICU
DAVIDSON'S - PRINCIPLES & PRACTICE OF MEDICINE
GOLWALLA- MEDICINE FOR STUDENTS
HARRISON'S- PRINCIPLES & PRACTICE OF MEDICINE (2 VOL SET)
HUTCHISON'S - CLINICAL METHODS
KUMAR - CLINICAL MEDICINE
KUNDU - BEDSIDE CLINICS IN MEDICINE PART- I
KUNDU - BEDSIDE CLINICS IN MEDICINE PART- II
MEHTA -COMMON MEDICAL SYMPTOMS
MEHTA -PRACTICAL MEDICINE
PATEL -CLINICAL MEDICINE
PATEL- CLINICS IN INTERNAL MEDICINE
WASHINGTON- THE WASHINGTON MANUAL OF MEDICAL THERAPEUTICS
VAIDYA - CASSETTE CLINICS IN MEDICINE (6-VOL SET)
VAIDYA - GENERAL PRACTICE (A PRCTICAL MANUAL)







Surgery
Goal
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Surgery is to produce graduates capable of delivering efficient first contact surgical care.
Surgery includes orthopedics, anesthesiology and radiodiagnosis as minor subjects


I. A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. Wound healing and management, scars: Hypertrophic scar and keloid; First aid    management of severely injured.
2. Asepsis, antisepsis, sterilisation.
3. Surgical sutures, knots, drains, bandages and splints.
4. Surgical infections and rational use of antibiotics: Causes of infection, prevention of infection, common organisms causing infection.
5. Boils, cellulitis, abscess, necrotising fascitis.
6. Tetanus and Gas gangrene: Prevention of Tetanus and Gas Gangrene.
7. Chronic specific infections: Tuberculosis, Filariasis, and Leprosy.
8. Antibiotic therapy.
9. Hospital infection.
   10.  AIDS and Hepatitis B; Occupational hazards and prevention.
I . B .  1.  Mechanism and management of missile, blast and gunshot injuries.
     2.  Surgical aspects of diabetes mellitus.
           3.  Bites and stings.
           4.  Organ transplantation - Basic principles.
           5.  Nutritional support to surgical patients.

II. RESUSCITATION.
1. Fluid electrolyte balance.
2. Shock: Aetiology, pathophysiology and management.
3. Blood transfusion : Indication and hazards.
4. Common postoperative complications.

III. COMMON SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS CONDITIONS.
1. Sebaceous cyst, dermoid cyst, lipoma, haemangioma, neurofibroma, premalignant conditions of the skin, basal cell carcinoma, naevi and malignant melanoma.
2. Sinus and fistulae. Pressure sores; prevention and management.

IV. ARTERIAL DISORDERS.
1. Acute arterial obstruction : diagnosis and initial management; types of gangrene ; diagnosis of chronic arterial insufficiency with emphasis on Burger’s disease, athreosclerosis and crush injuries.
2. Investigations in cases of arterial obstruction. Amputations;
3. Vascular injuries : basic principles of management.

V. VENOUS DISORDERS.
1. Varicose veins: diagnosis and management; deep venous thrombosis: diagnosis, prevention, principles of therapy; thrombophlebitis.

VI. LYMPHATICS AND LYMPH NODES.
1. Diagnosis and principles of management of lymphangitis, lymphedema, acute and chronic lymphadenitis; cold abscess, lymphomas, surgical manifestations of filariasis.

VII. BURNS.
1. Causes, prevention and first aid management; pathophysiology; assessment of depth and surface area, fluid resuscitation; skin cover; prevention of contractures.

VIII. SCALP, SKULL AND BRAIN.
1. Wounds of scalp and its management: recognition, diagnosis and monitoring of patients with head injury including unconsciousness; Glasgow coma scale recognition of acute / chronic cerebral compression.
IX. ORAL CAVITY, JAWS, SALIVARY GLANDS.
1. Oral cavity: I) Cleft lip and palate; Leukoplakia; retention cyst; ulcers of the tongue.
II) Features, diagnosis and basic principles of management of carcinoma lip, buccal mucosa and tongue, prevention and staging of oral carcinomas.
2. Salivary glands: I) Acute sialoadenitis, neoplasm: diagnosis and principles of treatment.      

IX. B.  Epulis, cysts and tumours of jaw: Maxillofacial injuries; salivary fistulae

X. NECK.
1. Branchial cyst; cystic hygroma.
2. Cervical lymphadenitis: Non-specific and specific, tuberculosis of lymphnodes, secondaries of neck.

X. B. Thoracic outlet syndrome: diagnosis.

XI. THYROID GLAND
1. Thyroid: Surgical anatomy, physiology, investigations of thyroid disorders; types, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management of goitre, thyrotoxicosis and malignancy, thyroglossal cyst and fistula.

XI. B.  Thyroiditis, Hypothyroidism.

XII. PARATHYROID AND ADRENAL GLANDS.
1. Clinical features and diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism, adrenal hyperfunction/ hypofunction.

XIII. BREAST.
1. Surgical anatomy; nipple discharge;  acute mastitis, breast abscess; mammary dysplasia; gynaecomastia; fibroadenomas.
2. Assessment  and investigations of a breast lump.
3. Cancer breast : diagnosis, staging, principles of management.
XIV. THORAX.
1. Recognition and treatment of pneumothorax, haemothorax, pulmonary embolism: Prevention/ recognition and treatment, flail chest; Stove in chest ; Postoperative pulmonary complications.
XIV. B.  Principles of management of pyothorax; cancer lung.

XV. HEART AND PERICARDIUM.
1. Cardiac tamponade
2. Scope of cardiac surgery.

XVI. OESOPHAGUS.
1. Dysphagia: Causes, investigations and principles of management.
2. Cancer oesophagus : Principles of management.
XVII. STOMACH AND DUODENUM.
1. Anatomy; Physiology, Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis; aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of peptic ulcer, cancer stomach; upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage with special reference to bleeding varices and duodenal ulcer.
XVIII. LIVER
1. Clinical features , diagnosis and principles of management of : Amoebic liver abscess, hydatid cyst and portal hypertension. Liver trauma.
XVIII.  B.  Surgical anatomy; primary and secondary neoplasms of liver.
XIX. SPLEEN
1. Splenomegaly: causes, investigations and indications for splenectomy: splenic injury.
XX. GALL BLADDER AND BILE DUCTS
1. Anatomy, physiology and investigations of biliary tree; clinical features, diagnosis, complications and principles of management of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis; obstructive jaundice.
XX. B.   Carcinoma of gall bladder, choledochal cyst.
XXI. PANCREAS.
1. Acute pancreatitis : Clinical features, diagnosis, complications and management.
2. Chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic tumours.
XXII. PERITONEUM, OMENTUM, MESENTERY AND RETROPERITONEAL SPACE.
1. Peritonitis : Causes, recognition and principles of management; intraperitoneal abscess.
XXII   B.  Laparoscopy and laparoscopic surgery.
XXIII. SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINES
1. Diagnosis and principles of treatment of : Intestinal amoebiasis, tuberculosis of intestine, carcinoma colon; lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage; Enteric fever, parasitic infestations.
XXIII.  B.  Ulcerative colitis, premalignant conditions of large bowel.
XXIV. INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.
1. Types, aetiology, diagnosis and principles of management; paralytic ileus.
XXV. ACUTE ABDOMEN.
1. Causes, approach, diagnosis and principles of management.
XXVI. APPENDIX
1. Diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis, appendicular lump and abscess.
XXVII. RECTUM.
1. Carcinoma rectum: diagnosis, clinical features and principles of management; indications and management of colostomy.
XXVII. B. Management of carcinoma rectum; prolapse of rectum.


XXVIII. ANAL CANAL .
1. Surgical anatomy. Clinical features and management of: fissure, fistula in ano, perianal and ischiorectal abscess and haemorrhoids; Diagnosis and referral of anorectal anomalies.
XXVIII. B.  Anal carcinoma.
XXIX. HERNIAS.
1. Clinical features, diagnosis, complications and principles of management of : Umbilical, Inguinal, epigastric and femoral hernia.
2. Omphalitis.
XXIX . B.  Umbilical fistulae, Burst abdomen, ventral hernia.

XXX. GENITO- URINARY SYSTEM.
1. Symptoms and investigations of the urinary tract.
XXXI. KIDNEY AND URETER
1. Investigations of renal mass; diagnosis and principles of management of urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, pyonephrosis, and perinephric abscess, congenital anomalies of kidney & Ureter and renal tumours.
2. Renal tuberculosis.
XXXII. URINARY BLADDER.
1. Causes, diagnosis and principles of management of haematuria, anuria and acute retention of urine.
XXXIII. PROSTATE AND SEMINAL VESICLES.
1. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: diagnosis and management.
XXXIII. B.  Carcinoma prostate.
XXXIII. URETHRA AND PENIS
1. Diagnosis and principles of management of Phimosis, paraphimosis and carcinoma penis.
2. Principles of management of urethral injuries.
3. Urethral strictures.
XXXV. TESTES AND SCROTUM
1. Diagnosis and principles of treatment of undescended testis; torsion testis; Hydrocoele, hematocoele, pyocoele, varicocele, epididymo-orchitis and testicular tumours.
XXXVI  PAEDIATRIC SURGERY
1. Oesophageal atresia and Intestinal atresia
2. Anorectal malformations
3. Constipation in children: Hirschsprung's disease, Acquired megacolon,
4. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
5. Extrophy, Epispadias complex and hypospadias
6. Spinal diastrophism and Hydrocephalus
7. Urinary tract infections in children- Vesicoureteral reflux, posterior urethral Valves, Vesico Ureteral Junction obstruction/Duplex ureter,   Obstructive uropathy in Children :  Hydronephrosis, Hydroureteronephrosis
8. Testicular Maldescent
9. Umbilical Hernia, Exompholos: Major/minor
10.  Wilm’s Tumours: Neuroblastoma, Ganglionioneuloblestoma, Ganglioneuroma, Endo-dermal Sinus Tumours.
11. Hamartomas in Children: Lymphangioma and Cystic hygroma, Haemangioma.
            Biliary Atresia and Surgical jaundice
Surgery Books

1 . Charles V. Mann, R.C.G. Russel, Norman S., Williams,
    Bailey and Love’s Short   Practice of Surgery, 23rd Edition, 2000 Chapman and Hall.
 2. K.Das: Clinical Methods in Surgery, 8th Edition, 1968, Suhas Kumar Dhar, Calcutta.
3.  JSP Lumley : Hamilton Bailey’s Physical Signs  18th Edn Butterworth/Heinemann.
1997,
4.  Somen Das ; A Practical Guide to Operative Surgery, 4th Edition, 1999, s. Das,     Calcutta
5. SHORT CASES IN SURGERY – BHATTACHARYA
6. MANIPAL - MANUAL OF SURGERY
7. NAN - UNDERGRADUATE SURGRY
8. PARULEKAR - PRACTICAL SURGERY
9. PATEL - HANBOOK OF SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS FOR UNDERGRADUATES
10. R.D.B'S - ART OF CLINICAL PRESENTATION IN SURGERY
11. R.D.B'S - ART OF STUDYING SURGICAL PATHOLOGY
12. VAIDYA- CASSETTE CLINICS IN GENERAL SURGERY (5-VOL SET)


REFERENCE TEXT BOOKS
1. .James Kyle : Pye’s Surgical handicraft, Indian edition, k.m. Varghese Company David C.
2. Sabiston ; Text Book of surgery : The Biological basis of Modern Surgical Practice, 15th Edition, 1971, W.B. Saunders.
3. Seymour I. Schwartz, G. Tom Shines, Frank C. Spencer, Wendy Cowles Husser: Principles of Surgery, Vol. 1 & 2, 7th Edition, 1999, Mc Graw Hill
4.  R.F. Rintoul : Farqharson’s Text Book of Operative Surgery, 8th Edition, 1995, Churchill Livingstone.
5.  Sir Charles Illingworth, Bruce m. Dick: A Text Book of Surgical Pathology,12th Edition, 2979, Churchill Livingstone.
6. R.W.H. McMinn : Last’s Anatomy: Regional and Applied; 10th Edition, 1999, Churchill Livingstone




Obstratics and Gynecology
Goal-
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Obstetrics and Gynaecology is that he/she shall acquire understanding of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of the reproductive system & gain the ability to optimally manage common conditions affecting it.


1. Applied anatomy of female genital tract.
2. Development of genital tract
3. Physiology of menstruation
4. Puberty and menopause
5. Physiology of ovulation / conception /   implantation.
       6. Early development of human embryo.
       7.  Structure, function and anomalies of placenta.
       8.  Physiological changes during pregnancy /    diagnosis of pregnancy.
       9.  Antenatal care, nutrition in pregnancy, detection    of high-risk pregnancy.
      10. Normal labour - Physiology, mechanism, clinical    course and management,
             pain relief    in labour.
       11. Normal puerperium and breast-feeding.
       12. Examination and care of newborn.
       13. Contraception - Introduction and basic principles
       14. Maternal mortality and morbidity, perinatal mortality and morbidity.    National health                      
               programme - safe-motherhood, reproductive and child health, social obstetrics.
GYNAECOLOGY
1. Development of genital tract, congenital anomalies and    clinical significance, Chromosomal abnormalities and    intersex.
2. Physiology of Menstruation, Menstrual abnormalities -Amenorrhoea,Dysmenorrhea, Abnormal Uterine Bleeding, DUB.
3. Puberty and its disorders, Adolescent Gynaecological    problems.
4. Menopause & H R T.
5. Infections of genital tract, Leucorrhoea, Pruritus  vulvae, Vaginitis, Cervicitis, PID, Genital TB, Sexually transmitted infections including HIV infection.
6. Benign & Malignant tumours of the genital tract. Leiomyoma, carcinoma cervix, carcinoma endometrium,chorio carcinoma, ovarian tumors. Benign & Malignant Lesions of Vulva
7. Radiotherapy & Chemotherapy in Gynaecology.
8. Other gynaecological disorders -   Adenomyosis, Endometriosis
9. Genital Prolapse, Genital Tract displacement,
10. Urinary    disorders in Gynaecology, Perineal tears, Genital     Fistulae, RVF & VVF.

FAMILY PLANNING :
-------------------------------
1. Demography and population Dynamics.
2. Contraception - Temporary methods /Permanent methods.
1. MTP Act and procedures of MTP in first & second trimester.
2. Emergency contraception. :
3. Complications in early pregnancy.
4. Hyperemesis gravidarum / abortion / ectopic    pregnancy / gestational trophoblastic disease.
5. Obstetrical complications during pregnancy -APH - Accidental hemorrhage. Placenta praevia / Poly hydramnios / oligohydramnios, multifetal    pregnancy/ Medical disorders in pregnancy.
6. Anemia, Heart disease. Hypertensive disorder,    PIH and Eclampsia, Diabetes, jaundice,    pulmonary    disease in  pregnancy, Infections in pregnancy
7. Urinary tract diseases, sexually transmitted   infections including HIV, malaria, TORCH etc.
8. Gynaecological and surgical conditions in pregnancy, Fibroid with pregnancy, ovarian tumours, acute    abdomen, genital prolapse.
9. High risk pregnancy, pre-term labour, post term    pregnancy, IUGR, IUFD, pregnancy wastages,     Rh       incompatibility, post caesarean pregnancy.
10. Induction of labour.
11. Abnormal position & presentation : Occipito  posterior, Breech, Transverse, Face & Brow, Compound, Cord Presentation and  prolapse.
12. Abnormal labour - abnormal uterine action, CPD.
13. Obstructed labour, uterine rupture.
14. Third stage complications - Retained placenta,    PPH,  Shock, Uterine inversion,   Fluid     Embolism.
15. Puerperial Sepsis and Other Complications in    puerperium.
16. Evaluation of Foetal Health during pregnancy and     labour.
17. Drugs used in obstetric practice.
18. Operative procedures in Obstetrics : Caesarean Section,    Instrumental Vaginal Delivery. Forceps, Vacuum,
19. Maternal Mortality and morbidity, Perinatal mortality       and morbidity. National  program - safe   motherhood, reproductive and child health ,   Social Obstetrics.


NEW BORN :
------------------
1. Examination and care of new born & low birth weight   babies.
2. Asphyxia and neonatal resuscitation.
3. Diagnosis of early neonatal problems.
4. Birth injuries, jaundice, infection.
5. Anencephaly & Hydrocephalus and other  Congenital    Anomalies of fetus.
Preventive Oncology
 Principles of gynaecological surgical procedures
Pre and post operative care in Gynaecology
Ultrasongraphy  and  Radiology, in  Gynaecology
Endoscopy in in  Gynaecology
Drugs and hormones in Gynaecology
Surgical procedures in obstetrics
Maternal mortality
Perinatal mortality
Recurrent pregnancy wastages
High risk pregnancy
Rural obstetrics
Drugs in Pregnancy
Drugs in obstetric practice

In addition, integrated teaching with  other  departments  like anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pathology, microbiology, Forensic Medicine and Preventive and Social medicine to be  organized  for  selected  topics.

Books for Ob/Gy

AFTARY - MANUAL OF OBSTETRICS (HOLAND & BREWS)
DAWN- TEXTBOOK OF OBSTETRICS & NEONATOLOGY
DAWN- TEXTBOOK OF GYNECOLOGY, CONTRACEPTION & DEMOGRAPHY
DUTTA- TEXTBOOK OF GYNECOLOGY
DUTTA-TEXTBOOK OF OBSTETRICS
KERKAR-TEXTBOOK OF OBSTETRICS
KHAN-FIVE TEACHERS GYNECOLOGY
MUDALIAR-CLINICAL OBSTETRICS
OXORN-FOOTE - HUMAN LABOR & BIRTH
PARULEKAR-PRACTICAL GYNECOLOGY & OBSTERICS
PARULEKAR - HANDBOOK OF PRACTICAL GYNECOLOGY & OBSTERICS
SHAW'S-TEXTBOOK OF GYNECOLOGY
VAIDYA-CASSETTE CLINICS IN GYNECOLOGY-OBSTERICS (4 VOL SET)
VIRKUD (D.K.) - MANUAL OF PRACTICAL OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY
WANI -ESSENTIAL OBSTERICS







Pediatrics
Goal
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students  in Pediatrics  is  to  acquire adequate  knowledge  and  appropriate skills  for  optimally  dealing with  major  health  problems  of children to ensure their optimal growth and development.

Curriculum
Introduction of Paediatrics.
History taking in children.
Examination of Children.
Normal Growth
Normal Development.
Introduction to newborn and normal newborn baby.
Temperature regulation in newborn.
Breast feeding and lactation management.
Infant and child feeding ( include complimentary feeding)
Normal fluid and electrolyte balance in children.
Immunization.
Birth Asphyxia
Low Birth Weight Babies.
Neonatal Respiratory Distress.
Jaundice in newborn.
Neonatal Infections.
Neonatal convulsions.
PEM and its management.
Vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies.
Nutritional anaemia in infancy and childhood.
Acute diarrhoea.
Hypothyroidism in children.
Congestive heart failure - diagnosis and management.
Congenital heart disease.
Rheumatic heart disease.
Hypertension in children.
Acute respiratory infections.
Bronchial asthma.
Nephrotic syndrome
Acute glomerulonephritis and hematuria
Abdominal pain in children.
Chronic liver disease including ICC.
Haemolytic anaemia including thalassemia.
Leukaemias.
Bleeding and coagulation disorders.
Seizure disorders.
Cerebral Palsy.
Common exanthematous illness.
Childhood tuberculosis
Other topics:
Fluid and electrolyte balance -pathophysiology and principles of Management.
Acid-base disturbances - pathophysiology and principles of management.
Adolescent growth and disorders of puberty.
Congenital heart disease.
Acute respiratory infections, Measles, Mumps, Chicken pox
Other childhood malignancies.
Coagulation disorders - Haemophilia
Mental retardation.
Approach to a handicapped child.
Acute flaccid paralysis.
Behaviour disorders.
Meningitis.
Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus.
Childhood tuberculosis.
HIV infection.
Malaria.
Neurocysticercosis.
Enteric fever.
Immunization.
Paediatric prescribing.
Common childhood poisonings.
Integrated Seminar Topics :
Convulsions
Coma
PUO
Jaundice
Portal hypertension
Respiratory failure
Shock
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Hypertension
Diabetes mellitus
Hypothyroidism
Anemia
Bleeding
Renal failure
Tuberculosis
Malaria
HIV infection
Neurocysticercosis
Perinatal asphyxia ( with obstetrics )
Intrauterine growth retardation ( with obstetrics)

Books for Pediatrics
D.K. - PEDIATRICS
GHAI-ESSENTIAL PEDIATRICS
GUPTE -THE SHORT TEXTBOOK OF PEDIATRICS
MAYOOR CHHEDA-PRATICALS ASPECTS OF PEDIATRICS
SHEJWAL-CLINICAL PEDIATRICS FOR GENERAL PRACTITIONERS



43 Response to "mbbs syllabus : mbbs subjects: mbbs degree"

I personally thank you so much for letting know us the syllabus or subject and its goal for MBBS students. It's very helpful for us ie. to be first year of MBBS students.
Very good, humble and well know & done Tamil Nadu, may God bless you to be more doctors and good teachers.

By. Brandon Laithlu Chozah ''mara, mizoram, india''

thank you

i need help
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regards
snigdha mishra

we help you .... mail us informationmbbs@gmail.com

thank u so much.... sir/madam for giving beginers a brief description on mbbs syllabus.....
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IT PORTRAYS THE ENTIRE MBBS SYLLABUS BEAUTIFULLY, FANTASTIC PRESENTATION, GOD BLESS YOU!

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Thank you so much for the detailed and systematic list of portions and required books :) its just what I was looking for..God bless!

thankyou very very very much for the detailed and such agood description on the syllabus of mbbs courses .thankyou once again sir /mam .may good bless you a lot and fullfills all yours life with joy and happiness and for the ability to help others also.:) .thankyou

thank u and i have a doubt that all colleges in India are following only these books are sure its a doubt for me other than that its really much useful to students who prefer to take mbbs
THANK U SO MUCH SIR/MAAM

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The syllabus is really detailed and portrayed efficiently. It gives a clear view of what soon to be medical students are up against and am really thankful to everyone associated for having done such a great job.
And a specail thankyou for even mentioning the reference books.
Your efforts are heartily appreciated.

Thank you for your help

thank you so much for providing me the syllabus. it will surely help me a lot. i want to ask you , whether this syllabus is applicable for all medical colleges or not. please answer me as soon as possible.

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