Objective Chemistry Vol 2 for Medical Entrances (English) 6 Edition
CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
• General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
• Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements,
atoms and molecules.
• Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage
composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions,
stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
UNIT II: Structure of Atom
• Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature
of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle,
concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling
electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s
rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely
UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
• Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties
of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy,
UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
• Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure,
polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of
molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals
and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear
diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.
UNITV: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
• Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and
boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule,
Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of
gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation.
Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal
behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
• Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea
only, no mathematical derivations).
UNITVI : Thermodynamics
• First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and
specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat
summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization,
sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
• Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs
energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for
equilibrium and spontaneity.
• Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.
UNIT VII: Equilibrium
• Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium,
law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-
Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong
and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid
strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)., buffer solutions,
Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative
UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions
• Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation
number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and
change in oxidation numbers.
UNIT IX: Hydrogen
• Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic,
covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy
water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;
UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
• Group I and group 2 elements:
• General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties
of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of
properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical
reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
• Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
• Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium
hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
• Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements
• General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
• Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous
properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds:
borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and
• General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous
behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical
properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.
• Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones,
silicates and zeolites, their uses.
UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
• General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative
analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
• Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect,
resonance and hyper conjugation.
• Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations,
carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons
• Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical
properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation,
combustion and pyrolysis.
• Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism,
physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of
hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and
peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
• Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties,
methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition
reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
• Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance,
aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution-
Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation;
directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene;
carcinogenicity and toxicity.
UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry
• Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in
atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its
reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global
warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool
for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Solid State
• Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic
covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea),
unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density
of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit
cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band
theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
UNIT II: Solutions
• Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids,
solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative
lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression
of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using
colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.
UNIT III: Electrochemistry
• Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar
conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law,
electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells
and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential,
Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics
• Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction;
concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law
and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and
first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no
mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
UNIT V: Surface Chemistry
• Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases
on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity:
enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and
suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids;
properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis,
coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction
electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of
aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
UNIT VII: p- Block Elements
• Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and
properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only);
Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and
properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea
• Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation
states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen:
preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur –
allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and
uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture,
properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
• Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation
states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of
halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid,
interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
• Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements
• General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals,
general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character,
ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property,
magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and
properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
• Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and
lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
• Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with
UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds
• Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour,
magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear
coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s
theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis,
UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical
properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
• Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of
halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
• Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane,
tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and
tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to
methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of
• Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties
UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of
preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic
addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
• Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical
and chemical properties; uses.
UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
• Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical
and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary
• Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
• Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic
UNIT XIV: Biomolecules
• Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose
and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose),
polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
• Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins,
primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure
(qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
• Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).
• Vitamins- Classification and function.
• Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
UNIT XV: Polymers
• Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and
condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and
synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable
UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
• Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea
• Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.